SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES [Abstract]
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation: The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Macatawa Bank Corporation (“the Company”, “our”, “we”) and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Macatawa Bank (“the Bank”). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Macatawa Bank is a Michigan chartered bank with depository accounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Bank operates 26 full service branch offices providing a full range of commercial and consumer banking and trust services in Kent County, Ottawa County, and northern Allegan County, Michigan.
The Company previously owned all of the common stock of Macatawa Statutory Trust II. This was a grantor trust that issued trust preferred securities and was not consolidated with the Company under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. On July 7, 2021, the Company redeemed all of the $20.0 million of outstanding trust preferred securities and $619,000 of common securities associated with this trust.
Recent Events: On March 22, 2020, the federal banking agencies issued an “Interagency Statement on Loan Modifications and Reporting for Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus.” The guidance explained that in consultation with the FASB staff the federal banking agencies concluded that short-term modifications (e.g. six months) made on a good faith basis to borrowers who were current as of the implementation date of a modification are not Troubled Debt Restructurings (“TDRs”). The Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act was passed by Congress on March 27, 2020. Section 4013 of the CARES Act also addressed COVID-19 related modifications and specified that COVID-19 related modifications on loans that were not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019 are not TDRs. On December 27, 2020, another COVID-19 relief bill was signed that extended this guidance until the earlier of January 1, 2022 or 60 days after the date on which the national emergency declared as a result of COVID-19 is terminated. Through September 30, 2021, the Bank had applied this guidance and modified 726 individual loans with aggregate principal balances totaling $337.2 million. As of September 30, 2021, all of these modifications had expired and the loans returned to their contractual payment terms.
The CARES Act, as amended, included an allocation of $659 billion for loans to be issued by financial institutions through the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”). PPP loans are forgivable, in whole or in part, if the proceeds are used for payroll and other permitted purposes in accordance with the requirements of the PPP. These loans carry a fixed rate of 1.00% and a term of two years (loans made before June 5, 2020) or five years (loans made on or after June 5, 2020), if not forgiven, in whole or in part. Payments are deferred until either the date on which the SBA remits the amount of forgiveness proceeds to the lender or the date that is 10 months after the last day of the covered period if the borrower does not apply for forgiveness within that 10 month period. Through December 31, 2020, the Bank had originated 1,738 PPP loans totaling $346.7 million in principal, with an average loan size of $200,000. Fees totaling $10.0 million were generated from the SBA for these loans in the year ended December 31, 2020. These fees are deferred and amortized into interest income over the contractual period of 24 months or 60 months, as applicable. Upon SBA forgiveness, unamortized fees are then recognized into interest income. Participation in the PPP had a significant impact on the Bank’s asset mix and net interest income in 2020 and will continue to impact both asset mix and net interest income until these loans are forgiven or paid off. The initial PPP expired on August 8, 2020. Through December 31, 2020, 765 PPP loans totaling $113.5 million had been forgiven by the SBA and a total of $5.4 million in PPP fees had been recognized by the Bank.
On December 27, 2020, another COVID-19 relief bill was signed that extended and modified several provisions of the PPP. This included an additional allocation of $284 billion. The SBA reactivated the PPP on January 11, 2021. The Bank originated additional loans through the PPP, which expired on May 31, 2021. In the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Bank had generated and received SBA approval on 1,000 PPP loans totaling $128.1 million and generated $5.6 million in related deferred PPP fees. In the nine months ended September 30, 2021, 1,742 PPP loans totaling $279.9 million had been forgiven by the SBA and a total of $7.1 million in PPP fees had been recognized by the Bank including fees recognized upon forgiveness and continuing amortization of fees from the 2020 and 2021 PPP originations.
While the Company continues to evaluate the disruption caused by the pandemic and impact of the CARES Act, these events may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of future operations, financial position, capital, and liquidity in fiscal year 2021 and beyond.
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Basis of Presentation: The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring accruals) believed necessary for a fair presentation have been included.
Operating results for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2021. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Use of Estimates: To prepare financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, management makes estimates and assumptions based on available information. These estimates and assumptions affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and the disclosures provided, and future results could differ. The allowance for loan losses, valuation of deferred tax assets, loss contingencies, fair value of other real estate owned and fair values of financial instruments are particularly subject to change.
Bank-Owned Life Insurance (BOLI): The Bank has purchased life insurance policies on certain officers. BOLI is recorded at its currently realizable cash surrender value. Changes in cash surrender value are recorded in other income. In early April 2021, the Bank purchased an additional $10.0 million in BOLI policies.
Allowance for Loan Losses: The allowance for loan losses (allowance) is a valuation allowance for probable incurred credit losses inherent in our loan portfolio, increased by the provision for loan losses and recoveries, and decreased by charge-offs of loans. Management believes the allowance for loan losses balance to be adequate based on known and inherent risks in the portfolio, past loan loss experience, information about specific borrower situations and estimated collateral values, economic conditions and other relevant factors. Allocations of the allowance may be made for specific loans, but the entire allowance is available for any loan that, in management’s judgment, should be charged-off. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectibility of a loan balance is confirmed. Management continues its collection efforts on previously charged-off balances and applies recoveries as additions to the allowance for loan losses.
The allowance consists of specific and general components. The specific component relates to loans that are individually classified as impaired. The general component covers non-classified loans and is based on historical loss experience adjusted for current qualitative factors. The Company maintains a loss migration analysis that tracks loan losses and recoveries based on loan class and the loan risk grade assignment for commercial loans. At September 30, 2021, an 18 month annualized historical loss experience was used for commercial loans and a 12 month historical loss experience period was applied to residential mortgage loans and consumer loans. These historical loss percentages are adjusted (both upwards and downwards) for certain qualitative factors, including economic trends, credit quality trends, valuation trends, concentration risk, quality of loan review, changes in personnel, external factors and other considerations. At September 30, 2021, the qualitative factor allocations for economic trends related to the COVID-19 that had been increased significantly during 2020 were maintained reflecting continued uncertainty of economic conditions with the reopening of the economy and surges in COVID-19 cases associated with the Delta variant of the virus. PPP loans receive $0 allocation as they are fully guaranteed by the SBA and are subject to be forgiven under the SBA forgiveness criteria.
A loan is impaired when, based on current information and events, it is believed to be probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Loans for which the terms have been modified and a concession has been made, and for which the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, are considered troubled debt restructurings and classified as impaired.
Commercial and commercial real estate loans with relationship balances exceeding $500,000 and an internal risk grading of 6 or worse are evaluated for impairment. If a loan is impaired, a portion of the allowance is allocated and the loan is reported at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s existing interest rate or at the fair value of collateral, less estimated costs to sell, if repayment is expected solely from the collateral. Large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans, such as consumer and residential real estate loans, are collectively evaluated for impairment and they are not separately identified for impairment disclosures.
Troubled debt restructurings are also considered impaired with impairment generally measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s effective rate at inception or using the fair value of collateral, less estimated costs to sell, if repayment is expected solely from the collateral.
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Foreclosed Assets: Assets acquired through or instead of loan foreclosure, primarily other real estate owned, are initially recorded at fair value less estimated costs to sell when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. If fair value declines, a valuation allowance is recorded through expense. Costs after acquisition are expensed unless they add value to the property.
Income Taxes: Income tax expense is the sum of the current year income tax due or refundable and the change in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities, computed using enacted tax rates. A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company recognizes a tax position as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
Revenue Recognition: The Company recognizes revenues as they are earned based on contractual terms, as transactions occur, or as services are provided and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company’s primary source of revenue is interest income from the Bank’s loans and investment securities. The Company also earns noninterest revenue from various banking services offered by the Bank.
Interest Income: The Company’s largest source of revenue is interest income which is primarily recognized on an accrual basis based on contractual terms written into loans and investment contracts.
Noninterest Revenue: The Company derives the majority of its noninterest revenue from: (1) service charges for deposit related services, (2) gains related to mortgage loan sales, (3) trust fees and (4) debit and credit card interchange income. Most of these services are transaction based and revenue is recognized as the related service is provided.
Derivatives: Certain of the Bank’s commercial loan customers have entered into interest rate swap agreements directly with the Bank. At the same time the Bank enters into a swap agreement with its customer, the Bank enters into a corresponding interest rate swap agreement with a correspondent bank at terms mirroring the Bank’s interest rate swap with its commercial loan customer. This is known as a back-to-back swap agreement. Under this arrangement the Bank has two freestanding interest rate swaps, each of which is carried at fair value. As the terms mirror each other, there is no income statement impact to the Bank. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the total notional amount of such agreements was $143.2 million and $156.4 million, respectively, and resulted in a derivative asset with a fair value of $3.4 million and $4.2 million, respectively, which were included in other assets and a derivative liability of $3.4 million and $4.2 million, respectively, which were included in other liabilities.
Mortgage Banking Derivatives: Commitments to fund mortgage loans (interest rate locks) to be sold into the secondary market and forward commitments for the future delivery of these mortgage loans are accounted for as derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting. Fair values of these mortgage derivatives are estimated based on changes in mortgage interest rates from the date the interest rate on the loan is locked. The Bank enters into commitments to sell mortgage backed securities, which it later buys back in order to hedge its exposure to interest rate risk in its mortgage pipeline. At times, the Bank also enters into forward commitments for the future delivery of mortgage loans when loans are closed but not yet sold, in order to hedge the change in interest rates resulting from its commitments to sell the loans.
Changes in the fair values of these interest rate lock and mortgage backed security and forward commitment derivatives are included in net gains on mortgage loans. The fair value of interest rate lock commitments was $(28,000) at September 30, 2021 and $103,000 at December 31, 2020. The fair value of mortgage backed security derivatives was $43,000 at September 30, 2021 and $(233,000) at December 31, 2020.
Reclassifications: Some items in the prior year financial statements were reclassified to conform to the current presentation.
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Continued)
Newly Issued Not Yet Effective Standards: FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU provides financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date by replacing the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The new guidance eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold and, instead, reflects an entity’s current estimate of all expected credit losses. The new guidance broadens the information that an entity must consider in developing its expected credit loss estimate for assets measured either collectively or individually to include forecasted information, as well as past events and current conditions. There is no specified method for measuring expected credit losses, and an entity is allowed to apply methods that reasonably reflect its expectations of the credit loss estimate. Although an entity may still use its current systems and methods for recording the allowance for credit losses, under the new rules, the inputs used to record the allowance for credit losses generally will need to change to appropriately reflect an estimate of all expected credit losses and the use of reasonable and supportable forecasts. Additionally, credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities will now have to be presented as an allowance rather than as a write-down.
ASU No. 2019-10 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842) – Effective Dates updated the effective date of this ASU for smaller reporting companies, such as the Company, to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company selected a software vendor for applying this new ASU for Current Expected Credit Losses (“CECL”), began implementation of the software in the second quarter of 2018, completed integration during the third quarter of 2018 and ran parallel computations with both systems using the current GAAP incurred loss model in the fourth quarter of 2018. The Company went live with this software beginning in January 2019 for its monthly incurred loss computations and began modeling the new current expected credit loss model assumptions to the allowance for loan losses computation. During 2019, 2020 and the first nine months of 2021, the Company modeled the various methods prescribed in the ASU against the Company’s identified loan segments. The Company anticipates continuing to run parallel computations and fine tune assumptions as it continues to evaluate the impact of adoption of the new standard. The COVID-19 pandemic that broke out in the United States in the first quarter of 2020 and continued into 2021 may have a significant impact on allowance computations under the incurred loss model which could be amplified under the new standard.